f.ADHD:Co-morbidities or Post-morbidities

Indolence is sweet, and its consequences bitter. Voltaire

In medicine including psychiatry, the term “co-morbidities” is used commonly and means that more than one illness co-exist. The term unfortunately does delineate which illness started first or if one is the complication of the other. While more than one illness can occur at relatively the same time or a period of time, without any causal link, there are situations that there are such link. In these situations that one illness or condition causes other(s), it is prudent to label the first condition or illness as primary and the other(s) as secondary or complication(s). in these circumstances, it is then redundant to use such a term as “co-morbidities” , but “post-morbidities” make more sense. Unfortunately in the whole medical including psychiatric literature such a term does not exist that has been for the first time in the book “ADHD:Revisited” has been used and proposed.

 ADHD is a very good clinical example of a primary condition that can cause many co-morbidities if not diagnosed and untreated. The list of untreated or poorly treated ADHD post-morbidities is exhausting and could include:                                                                 1.Depression


3.Impulsivity & Aggression


5.Substance Use Disorders

6.Conduct Disorder

7.Oppositional Defiant Disorder

8.Anti-social Personality Disorder

9.Borderline Personality Disorder    

10.Narcissistic Personality Disorder    

11.Risk Taking Behaviors


13.Poor cognitive, academic, vocational and other functional disorders

14.Learning Disorders

15.Eating Disorders

16.Sleep Disorders

17.Accidents and injuries prone Personalities

18.Low Self-esteem and Confidence

19.Social/ interpersonal Disorders

20.Gambling, Games and Internet Addiction  

 Among all the post-morbidities of ADHD, the ones related to impulsivity, behavioural disinhibit ion, aggression, conduct and oppositional defiant disorders, risk taking behaviours, substance use, gambling, games and internet addictions have the heaviest tolls on the individuals, their families, schools and the society at large. All these and learning disorders and academic and career failures that are not less important could be prevented by early recognition, diagnosis and treatment.

 Read more in the book, “ADHD:Revisited” available at Amazon, Kindle books.